Election Deceptions

Methods of Deception and its Detection

Necessary Definitions (things are not what you think- after all, this is about deception):

  1. Fact – information known to be correct.

  2. Truth – factually correct, but not necessarily complete information.�

  3. Honest – information that communicates a correct and realistic understanding.

  4. Lie – false information usually combined with facts.

  5. Deception – intentionally misleading others to incorrect conclusions.

�Deception is intentional and can be achieved in a variety of ways. The three most common are: not answering a question, answering a question with carefully edited and incomplete facts, and providing false information.

As a rule, people prefer to be honest. When we are being honest, our responses are normally recalled instantly. Our actions are consistent with our words. Our words express what we mean and are used in a manner appropriate to the situation and we are generally unaware of and unconcerned with controlling our facial expressions and body language.

Deception is the result of fear. Common identifiers include:

  • redirecting the focus of a question so that our response seems as though we are answering the question when we aren’t

  • doing any number of actions to gain thinking time so that our deceptions seem reasonable and believable

  • trying to control our actions, expressions and thoughts we fear may give us (and our deception) away.

    If we are caught off guard or are pressured for an immediate response without thinking time, we will often simply lie.

The following are brief descriptions of the methods deception experts use:

    • 1.����� Micro-Expression Analysis – identifies true emotions before they can be hidden. Example: Knowing you might get away with something you start to smirk, then realize this is inappropriate and try to hide it.

    • 2.����� Statement Analysis – uses rules of language so deeply ingrained we’re unaware of how they give away important (and even hidden) information. Examples: You swap words to subtly redefine them “energy” becomes “oil”or the self involvement of “I” is left out at critical areas, “I went to the store. While there though, didn’t steal anything.”

    • 3.����� Kinesics and Stress Analysis – compares normal behavior to the presented behavior so that fear based stress can be identified and associated with specific items. Examples: Your normal sweeping arm gestures are suddenly reduced when you are deceiving about something. You pick at or adjust your clothing every time a specific topic comes up.

    • 4.����� Response Avoidance and Reaction Time – to avoid the fears we imagine, we will try to avoid answering the question and/or we require extra thinking time. Example: Asked if you visited your ex-girlfriend on Saturday (when you murdered her), you respond, “I never go visiting on Saturdays. Saturdays are for sports and I watch sports religiously.”

    Put what you learn here to the test by visiting related videos below and analyzing for yourself!